The procedure applies to an Intel-based pc

The procedure applies to an Intel-based pc

tarix08.10.2017
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The procedure applies to an Intel-based PC

  • The procedure applies to an Intel-based PC

  • Programs involved in the initial steps

    • Startup BIOS (firmware)
    • MBR program
    • Boot sector program
    • Ntldr
  • Table 5-1 describes the steps in detail



List of key folders used by Windows 2000/XP:

  • List of key folders used by Windows 2000/XP:

    • C:\Windows: the Windows XP installation
    • C:\Windows\System32: core system files and subfolders
    • C:\Windows\System32\config: registry hives
    • C:\Windows\System32\drivers: device driver files
    • C:\Documents and Settings: user account information
    • C:\Program Files: installed applications


Sources of information about troubleshooting tools:

  • Sources of information about troubleshooting tools:

    • Microsoft Knowledge Base at support.microsoft.com
    • Microsoft Windows XP Professional Resource Kit Documentation (a book)
    • Table 5-3 in the text
    • Help files for a command tool
  • Examples of the many tools available:

    • Last Known Good Configuration
    • Safe Mode
    • System Information (Systeminfo.exe)


Used to diagnose and fix boot-related problems

  • Used to diagnose and fix boot-related problems

  • Press F8 key to display Advanced Options menu

  • A list of the options

    • Safe Mode: boots OS with minimal configuration
    • Safe Mode with Networking: includes network access
    • Safe Mode with Command Prompt: text-based only
    • Enable Boot Logging: records files used during boot
    • Enable VGA Mode: substitute for regular display
    • Last Known Good Configuration: stored in the registry


A list of the options (continued)

  • A list of the options (continued)

    • Directory services restore mode: for domain controllers
    • Debugging mode: for moving system logs to another PC
    • Disable automatic restart on system failure: stops reboot
  • Blue screen of death (BSOD)

    • Also called a stop error or system failure


A command-driven OS for serious troubleshooting

  • A command-driven OS for serious troubleshooting

  • Functions performed with the Recovery Console

    • Repair a damaged registry, system files, or file system
    • Enable or disable a service or device driver
    • Repair master boot program on hard drive
    • Repair boot sector on the system partition
    • Repair a damaged Boot.ini file
    • Recover data when the Windows OS is beyond repair
  • Recovery Console is protected from illegal access

  • Table 5-4 (partially reproduced) lists commands



Use the recovery console to fix hard drive problems

  • Use the recovery console to fix hard drive problems

    • Fixmbr: restores the master boot program in the MBR
    • Fixboot: repairs the OS boot record
    • Diskpart: used to view, create, and delete partitions
    • Chkdsk: repairs file system and recovers data
  • Restore the registry following steps in Table 5-5

  • Disabling a service or device driver

    • Listsvc: lists all services currently installed
    • Disable: disables a service
    • Enable: shows current status or reinstates a service


Use the Recovery Console to restore system files

  • Use the Recovery Console to restore system files

    • Map: displays the current drive letters
    • Systemroot: sets Windows directory as default directory
    • Delete: deletes a file
    • CD: changes directory
    • Copy: makes a backup of the current Ntldr file
    • Bootcfg: lets you view and edit the Boot.ini file
    • Expand: extracts files compressed in cabinet (.cab) files


Use the recovery console to recover data

  • Use the recovery console to recover data

    • First step: change some Recovery Console settings
    • Second step: copy data from hard drive to other media
  • Optional installation of the Recovery Console

    • Open a command window
    • Navigate to \i386 folder on Windows 2000/XP CD
    • Enter the command winnt32 /cmdcons
      • The Recovery Console is installed at this step
    • Restart your computer
      • Recovery Console should be on the boot loader menu


Topics to cover

  • Topics to cover

    • General guidelines for troubleshooting
    • How to respond to startup errors
    • How to clean up a sluggish startup
    • How to restore system files
    • Methods to use as a last resort


Ask the user what happened before problem started

  • Ask the user what happened before problem started

  • Back up data before trying to solve an OS problem

  • Determine what point in boot the system fails

  • Check the simple things first; e.g., loose cables

  • Boot to Advanced Options, select Last Known Good Configuration



Errors that occur before the windows load begins

  • Errors that occur before the windows load begins

    • Startup BIOS is still in control
    • All core startup components must work for success
    • Essential hardware: CPU, boot device, power supply
    • Example: BIOS cannot find a hard drive
  • Stop error

    • Drastic error that causes Windows to hang or lock up
    • Search Microsoft support site for help with problem
    • Example: a bad USB device causes BSOD to appear


Program not found error

  • Program not found error

    • Entry in the registry or a startup folder, but no program
    • Cause: uninstall routine leaves entry behind
    • You can use Msconfig to identify orphan entry
    • If the entry is in registry, delete entry to eliminate error
  • Errors from when a device or service has failed to start

    • Use Device Manager to update the driver
    • Uninstall and reinstall the device
    • Boot from Last Known Good Configuration
    • Try Safe Mode, System Restore, Recovery Console


Locations to check for cleanup

  • Locations to check for cleanup

    • Startup folders for startup processes
    • Unwanted scheduled tasks
    • Group Policy startup entries
    • Installed fonts
  • Msconfig: used to find other startup entries

  • Services Console: used to disable unwanted services

  • Check startup folders

    • Move unwanted programs or shortcuts to another folder


Look for unwanted scheduled tasks

  • Look for unwanted scheduled tasks

    • Tasks launched at startup are in C:\Windows\Tasks
    • Inspect folder for unwanted or malicious tasks
  • Check Group Policy for unwanted startup events

    • Group Policy scripts are placed in one of four folders
    • Malicious software is sometimes placed in these folders
  • Check for too many installed fonts

    • Fonts stored in C:\Windows\Fonts folder
    • Install or uninstall a font: move font into or out of folder
    • Make sure folder does not hold more than 260 files


Use Windows XP Msconfig to limit startup events

  • Use Windows XP Msconfig to limit startup events

    • To access utility, enter Msconfig in the Run dialog box
    • Click Services tab to view all services set to start
    • Click Startup tab to view/edit list of startup programs
    • Deselecting a startup item is not a permanent solution
  • Check for corrupted or unneeded files

    • Service: support program running the background
    • Identify services from the Services Console
    • Investigate the service on the Internet


Return to a previous Windows XP restore point

  • Return to a previous Windows XP restore point

    • Try Driver Rollback before System Restore
    • If using System Restore, select a close restore point
    • Accessing System Restore when Windows GUI is down
      • Try booting into Safe Mode
  • Use Windows 2000/XP boot disk to verify boot files

    • If OS boots from disk, problem is in root folder of C drive
    • To create boot disk, copy boot files from PC or setup CD
    • A repair suggestion: replace Ntldr, Ntdetect.com, Boot.ini


Recovery partitions and recovery CDs

  • Recovery partitions and recovery CDs

    • If provided, use a recovery CD instead of a setup CD
      • Recovery CD has drivers specific to system and OS build
    • Hidden partition may also be used for recovery
  • Windows XP Automated System Recovery (ASR)

    • Recovers system from time of last full backup of drive C
    • Access ASR backup from setup CD (press F2)
    • Follow directions onscreen to restore drive C


The Windows 2000 Emergency Repair Process

  • The Windows 2000 Emergency Repair Process

    • Method of last resort (all changes to system are lost)
    • Process uses Emergency Repair Disk (ERD)
  • In-place upgrade of Windows 2000/XP

    • Software/hardware are reinstalled, user data preserved
    • Use repair utility on Windows 2000/XP setup CD
  • Clean installation of Windows 2000/XP

    • First step: copy data files to a safe place
    • Destroy current Windows 2000/XP installation
    • Reinstall the OS from the Windows 2000/XP setup CD

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